Thyroid – Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Thyroid – Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment


Thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. The thyroid uses iodine to produce vital hormones. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the primary hormone produced by the gland. After delivery via the bloodstream to the body's tissues, a small portion of the T4 released from the gland is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the most active hormone.

The function of the thyroid gland is regulated by a feedback mechanism involving the brain. When thyroid hormone levels are low, the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) releases thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release more T4.

Since the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, disorders of these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid problems.


1.      Hypothyroidism

2.      Hyperthyroidism

Hypothyroidism - This is a condition, which is denoted by a dip in the thyroid hormones in the blood. It majorly happens if one is suffering from underactive thyroid or glands that simply controls the thyroid functions, though there are various other causes that also can lead to this condition. It is habitually noticed that hypothyroidism affects women more than men in comparison and gets worse as one becomes older. This also needs to be tackled during pregnancy.

 Symptoms of hypothyroidism can include:

> Fatigue

> Poor concentration or feeling mentally "foggy"

> Dry skin

> Constipation

> Feeling cold

> Fluid retention

> Muscle and joint aches

> Depression

> Prolonged or excessive menstrual bleeding in women

Hyperthyroidism - In this particular condition there is always an overdrive of the thyroid hormone in the blood owing to an over active thyroid gland that as well secretes the hormones in abundance.

Symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism can include:

> Tremor

> Nervousness

> Fast heart rate

> Fatigue

> Intolerance for heat

> Increase in bowel movements

> Increased sweating

> Concentration problems

> Unintentional weight loss


In addition to thorough medical history and physical exam, specialized tests are used to diagnose thyroid disorders.

Diagnosis for hypothyroidism is made by measuring blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Generally, if the TSH level is above normal, it means hypothyroidism. A low T4 level also indicates hypothyroidism.

Diagnosis for hyperthyroidism is made after your doc does a few blood tests. The following factors point to a batty butterfly:

> TSH levels are very low or higher than normal

> T3 and T4 levels are high or low than normal

> Anti TG – Anti Thyroglobulin

> Anti TPO – Anti Thyroperoxidase

Imaging tests are commonly used when thyroid nodules or enlargement are present. Ultrasound can visualize the consistency of the tissue within the gland and can often reveal cysts or calcifications. Ultrasound examination cannot distinguish a benign from a malignant process.

Fine needle aspiration and biopsy are techniques that remove a sample of cells or tissue from the thyroid gland for examination and diagnosis by a pathologist. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) uses a long, thin needle to withdraw a sample of cells from the thyroid. Sometimes, ultrasound imaging is used to guide the FNA procedure. A biopsy is the surgical sampling of a tissue.


Thyroid disorders can be treated by medications or, in some cases, surgery. Treatment will depend on the particular disease of the thyroid.

Thyroid Medications

Medications can be given to replace the missing thyroid hormone in hypothyroidism. Synthetic thyroid hormone is given in pill form by mouth. When hyperthyroidism is present, medications can be used to decrease production of thyroid hormone or prevent its release from the gland. Other medications can be given to help manage the symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as increased heart rate. If hyperthyroidism is not controlled with medications, radioactive ablation can be performed. Ablation involves giving doses of iodine labeled with radioactivity that selectively destroys the thyroid tissue.

Thyroid Surgery

Surgery can be used to remove a large goiter or a hyperfunctioning nodule within the gland. Surgery is necessary when there is a possibility of thyroid cancer. If the thyroid gland is removed entirely, the individual will need to take synthetic thyroid hormone for life.

Hence it can be said that when it comes to the process of reducing your Thyroid, only some authentic thyroid blood test fasting procedures are the best available option for its diagnosis along with medication. You must always have some diet chart along with some effective meditation.

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